IgY An Alternative antibody. This text book gives a clear illustration and description of the principles and concepts of immunology in a highly accessible and comprehensive manner. This book is designed to cater the basic needs of the scientists in the field of Biomedical science, Biotechnology, Immunology, Biochemistry and Microbiology. This book also elaborates and highlights the various techniques employed for in vivo and in vitro analysis of biomolecules. Each chapter starts with introductory details of the techniques followed by laboratory methods. The book is compartmented into five following chapters, 1. Introduction 2. Venom composition and enzyme activities 3. Symptoms, signs and treatment of cobra bite 4. Extraction of egg yolk IgY 5.In vivo and In vitro assays.
In this book, Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is described as one of the pathogenic bacteria that is responsible for diarrhoea in human and farm animals. Several fimbrial adhesins of ETEC strains (K88, K99,987P and F41) were used as the primary character of ETEC diarrhoea. Regular dosages of combined K88-K99-987P and K88-K99-F41 through 4 commercial adjuvants: Freund's, White oil, Al(OH)3, and Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS) were immunised in chickens for IgY antibody production. IgY antibody extraction and purification methods from the eggs were devised. After HiTrap affinity column purification, SDS-PAGE confirmed that the extracted IgY was electrophoretic clean with a molecular weight of 188 kDa. ELISA test indicated that the induced IgYs were 5 titers higher as compared to the non-immunized chickens. The richness of lecithin and cholesterol in egg yolk was found to get the unpurified IgY stable throughout the stomach pH (3-4). Complexed IgY-egg powder (given in-vivo) as a novel food powder could transit the piglet's stomach and had a curative effect against ETEC-inducing diarrhoea.
Antibodies are the functional unit of humoral immunity. They are secreted by plasma cells, a type of B lymphocyte. When on the surface of a B cell, these molecules are immunoglobulins, following secretion they are termed as antibodies. Antibodies are found in bodily fluids and tissue spaces and are most effective in eliminating extracellular pathogens. As compared to mammalian antibodies, IgY offers various advantages for the targeted extraction of antibodies and their application in bioanalysis. Since the antibodies are extracted from the yolks of laid eggs, the method of antibody production is non-invasive. Thus, no blood must be taken from the animals for the extraction of blood serum. Because of its economic importance most research on immunity implied in the reactivity of the body were performed on domestic birds. Direct consequence of this research is the understanding of fundamental and applied concepts of immunity in birds. Comparing to the mammalian, avian immune system appears insignificant. However, it currently provides important information regarding the fundamental immunological mechanisms. It also provided a significant number of firsts, especially in vaccinology.