The research was aimed to study the potential of probiotic lactic acid bacteria as suitable alternatives to antibiotics in broilers. This was design to find a possible replacement to antibiotics in broiler production. The study was carried out at the Department of microbiology, faculty of sciences Kaduna State University, Kaduna between January to May 2018. A total of ten raw milk samples were screened for the isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria and 20 day-old broiler chicks (initial body weight 41 ± 0.5 g) were administered probiotics containing Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantenrun and Weissalla ciberia in water at 108 cells/milliliters/isolates/birds/day at day 6, 7, 8, 21, 22, and 23 of ages. Body Weight (BW), Weight Gain (WG) and Feed Intake (FI) were measured weekly just as feed conversion ratio was calculated and mortality recorded throughout the duration of the experiment. Blood glucose concentration, total protein, lipid profiles and Total immunoglobulins (IgY) were determined from blood sample at the ages of 14 and 42 days. Carcass quality and proximate analysis were evaluated from the meat of the broiler at the age of 42 days.
The protocol developed for IgY purificationindicated approximately 74% recovery rate and 80%purity, while that of ovotransferrin appeared to bearound 93% recovery rate and 80% purity. Theseprotocols seem to be economical and practical for alarge-scale purification of IgY and ovotransferrinfrom chicken egg because ethanol and resin used inthe protocols can be regenerated as well as they aresimple and rapid methods. The combination of 100 mM-NaHCO3 to ovotransferrin was found to bebacteriostatic against E. coli O157:H7 and L.monocytogenes in BHI broth. Also ovotransferrinsolution added with 0.5% citric acid or Zn-boundovotransferrin inhibited the growth E. coli O157:H7and L. monocytogenes in BHI broth respectively.Also, EDTA and lysozyme promoted antibacterialactivity of ovotransferrin solution combined with100 mM-NaHCO3 against E. coli O157:H7 andL.monocytogenes respectively. Based on theseresults, this study claims that ovotransferrincombined citric acid, NaHCO3, and EDTA or lysozymeseemed to be useful antibacterial agents forcontrolling E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes.
Antibodies are the functional unit of humoral immunity. They are secreted by plasma cells, a type of B lymphocyte. When on the surface of a B cell, these molecules are immunoglobulins, following secretion they are termed as antibodies. Antibodies are found in bodily fluids and tissue spaces and are most effective in eliminating extracellular pathogens. As compared to mammalian antibodies, IgY offers various advantages for the targeted extraction of antibodies and their application in bioanalysis. Since the antibodies are extracted from the yolks of laid eggs, the method of antibody production is non-invasive. Thus, no blood must be taken from the animals for the extraction of blood serum. Because of its economic importance most research on immunity implied in the reactivity of the body were performed on domestic birds. Direct consequence of this research is the understanding of fundamental and applied concepts of immunity in birds. Comparing to the mammalian, avian immune system appears insignificant. However, it currently provides important information regarding the fundamental immunological mechanisms. It also provided a significant number of firsts, especially in vaccinology.
Simple Purificaiton of IgY and Ovotransferrin andAntimicrobial Activity of Ovotransferrin againstEscherichia coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes