High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Chapman served with the Royal Australian Air Force Reserve from 1953 to 1955. He learned to fly (in a Tiger Moth) during Australian National Service. From 1956 to 1957, he worked for Philips Electronics Industries Proprietary Limited in Sydney, Australia. He then spent 15 months in Antarctica with the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE), for the International Geophysical Year (IGY) as an auroral/radio physicist. The work required that he spend most of the winter with one other man at a remote camp. From 1960 to 1961, he was an electro-optics staff engineer in flight simulators for Canadian Aviation Electronics Limited in Dorval, Quebec. His next assignment was as a staff physicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he worked in electro-optics, inertial systems, and gravitational theory until the summer of 1967.
In this book, Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is described as one of the pathogenic bacteria that is responsible for diarrhoea in human and farm animals. Several fimbrial adhesins of ETEC strains (K88, K99,987P and F41) were used as the primary character of ETEC diarrhoea. Regular dosages of combined K88-K99-987P and K88-K99-F41 through 4 commercial adjuvants: Freund's, White oil, Al(OH)3, and Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS) were immunised in chickens for IgY antibody production. IgY antibody extraction and purification methods from the eggs were devised. After HiTrap affinity column purification, SDS-PAGE confirmed that the extracted IgY was electrophoretic clean with a molecular weight of 188 kDa. ELISA test indicated that the induced IgYs were 5 titers higher as compared to the non-immunized chickens. The richness of lecithin and cholesterol in egg yolk was found to get the unpurified IgY stable throughout the stomach pH (3-4). Complexed IgY-egg powder (given in-vivo) as a novel food powder could transit the piglet's stomach and had a curative effect against ETEC-inducing diarrhoea.
IgY An Alternative antibody. This text book gives a clear illustration and description of the principles and concepts of immunology in a highly accessible and comprehensive manner. This book is designed to cater the basic needs of the scientists in the field of Biomedical science, Biotechnology, Immunology, Biochemistry and Microbiology. This book also elaborates and highlights the various techniques employed for in vivo and in vitro analysis of biomolecules. Each chapter starts with introductory details of the techniques followed by laboratory methods. The book is compartmented into five following chapters, 1. Introduction 2. Venom composition and enzyme activities 3. Symptoms, signs and treatment of cobra bite 4. Extraction of egg yolk IgY 5.In vivo and In vitro assays.
The protocol developed for IgY purificationindicated approximately 74% recovery rate and 80%purity, while that of ovotransferrin appeared to bearound 93% recovery rate and 80% purity. Theseprotocols seem to be economical and practical for alarge-scale purification of IgY and ovotransferrinfrom chicken egg because ethanol and resin used inthe protocols can be regenerated as well as they aresimple and rapid methods. The combination of 100 mM-NaHCO3 to ovotransferrin was found to bebacteriostatic against E. coli O157:H7 and L.monocytogenes in BHI broth. Also ovotransferrinsolution added with 0.5% citric acid or Zn-boundovotransferrin inhibited the growth E. coli O157:H7and L. monocytogenes in BHI broth respectively.Also, EDTA and lysozyme promoted antibacterialactivity of ovotransferrin solution combined with100 mM-NaHCO3 against E. coli O157:H7 andL.monocytogenes respectively. Based on theseresults, this study claims that ovotransferrincombined citric acid, NaHCO3, and EDTA or lysozymeseemed to be useful antibacterial agents forcontrolling E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes.
The 'Year' That Changed How We View the North This book is about a new theoretical approach that transformed the field of Arctic social studies and about a program called International Polar Year 2007-2008 (IPY) that altered the position of social research within the broader polar science. The concept for IPY was developed in 2003-2005, its vision was for researchers from many nations to work together to gain cro- disciplinary insight into planetary processes, to explore and increase our understanding of the polar regions, the Arctic and Antarctica, and of their roles in the global system. IPY 2007-2008, the fourth program of its kind, followed in the footsteps of its predecessors, the first IPY in 1882-1883, the second IPY in 1932-1933, and the third IPY (later renamed to 'International Geophysical Year' or IGY) in 1957-1958. All earlier IPY/IGY have been primarily geophysical initiatives, with their focus on meteorology, atmospheric and geomagnetic observations, and with additional emphasis on glaciology and sea ice circulation. As such, they excluded socio-economic disciplines and polar indigenous people, often deliberately, except for limited ethnographic and natural history collection work conducted by some expeditions of the first IPY. That once dominant vision biased heavily towards geophysics, oceanography, and ice-sheets, left little if any place for people, that is, the social sciences and the humanities, in what has been commonly viewed as the 'hard-core' polar research.
KurzbeschreibungZiel dieser Dissertation war es, die anhaltende Debatte, ob die Aufnahme von Futtermitteln mit Cry1Ab Mais im Vergleich zu isogenem Mais Auswirkungen auf die Gesundheit hat, voranzutreiben. Zu diesem Zweck wurde die Japanische Wachtel als Modellorganismus genutzt. Zunächst erfolgte die Etablierung klinisch-chemischer Referenzwerte von bis zu 125 männlichen und 151 weiblichen adulten Tieren. In der überwiegenden Anzahl der untersuchten Parameter traten erwartungsgemäß Unterschiede zwischen den Geschlechtern auf.In dem darauffolgenden Mehrgenerationenversuch wurden Tiere der 17. bis 20. Generation verglichen, deren Fütterung mit Bacillus thuringiensis-Mais (Bt) oder isogenem Mais (ISO) erfolgte (n=40/Fütterungsgruppe und Geschlecht). Die Untersuchungen wurden ausgeweitet auf Tiere, die in der ersten Generation Bt-Mais erhielten (n=30/Fütterungsgruppe und Geschlecht) und auf zwei zusätzliche, mit isogenem Referenzmais (REF) (n=30/Fütterungsgruppe und Geschlecht) gefütterte Kontrollgruppen. Im Alter von 16 Wochen erfolgte die Analyse klinisch-chemischer Parameter sowie die histologische Betrachtung des Lebergewebes. Signifikante Unterschiede traten lediglich in einigen der betrachteten Parameter auf. Diese Unterschiede waren jedoch weder konstant noch analog und beschränkten sich nicht auf Vergleiche zwischen Bt vs. ISO, oder REF.Abschließend wurde der Effekt einer aktiven Immunisierung mit Bovinem Serum Albumin (BSA) in Fütterungsversuchen mit Bt- oder isogenem Mais getestet. Nach 16-wöchiger Fütterung der Versuchsrationen erfolgte die Injektion mit BSA bzw. NaCl von jeweils der Hälfte der Tiere pro Fütterungsgruppe, wovon jeweils wiederum von der Hälfte (n=30) nach 36 h Blutproben gewonnen und auf ihren Zinkgehalt untersucht wurden. Von den verbleibenden Tieren wurden für insgesamt sechs Wochen nach der Injektion alle zwei Wochen Eidotterproben gesammelt und die Konzentrationen an Gesamt-IgY sowie BSA-spezifischem IgY gemessen. Bei beiden Parametern traten keine Unterschiede zwischen den Fütterungsgruppen auf. In der Gruppe Bt-Mais gefütterter Tiere konnte eine höhere Zinkkonzentration im Vergleich zu den isogen gefütterten Kontrolltieren ermittelt werden, nachdem die Proben von BSA und NaCl-injizierten Tieren der jeweiligen Fütterungsgruppe zusammengefasst wurden. Die Ergebnisse dieser Studie geben keine Hinweise darauf, dass die Fütterung von Bt-Mais das Immunsystem von Japanischen Wachteln beeinträchtigt.Die Analyse der Nährstoffgehalte sowie der Konzentrationen der Mykotoxine Deoxynivalenol und Zearalenon in den verwendeten Futtermischungen zeigte keine Unterschiede zwischen den Fütterungsgruppen. Zudem lagen die Mykotoxinkonzentrationen durchweg unterhalb den von der EU-Kommission akzeptierten Höchstmengen.Das Ausbleiben negativer Gesundheitseffekte in den durchgeführten Untersuchungen trägt zu der anhaltenden Diskussion bezüglich des Einsatzes gentechnisch veränderter Getreide in der Tierernährung bei. Die Ergebnisse sind von genereller Bedeutung für die Tierwissenschaft und unterstützen die Vergleichbarkeit von Bt-Mais mit konventionellen Maissorten im Hinblick auf die Tiergesundheit.DescriptionThe aim of this dissertation was to advance the ongoing debate as to whether health is affected by the intake of diets containing maize with the Cry1Ab trait in comparison to non-biotech counterparts. For this purpose the Japanese quail was used as a model organism. Initially serum chemistry reference values were established from up to 125 male and 151 female adult quail. Most parameters observed showed sex-related differences.In the following experiment, quail from generations 17 to 20 of a multigenerational comparison with animals fed diets containing either genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis-maize (Bt), or isogenic maize (ISO) (n=40/feeding group/sex) were used. In addition, animals fed these maize varieties in first generation (n=30/feeding group/sex), as well as further control groups fed with two different isogenic hybrid reference maize cultivars (REF) (n=30/feeding group/sex) were included. At 16 wk of age, blood samples were analyzed for serum biochemical parameters and liver tissue was histomorphometrically evaluated.Statistical differences between feeding groups occurred in few of the observed parameters, they were neither consistent nor analogous and were not limited to Bt vs. ISO, or REF comparisons.In a further experiment, the effect of an active immunization against bovine serum albumin (BSA) was tested in feeding regimen including Bt or isogenic maize. After 16 wk on the experimental diets, one half of each feeding group was injected with BSA or NaCl, respectively. Thirty-six h after the injection, half of the BSA injected group (n=30) and half of the saline group (n=30) from both feeding groups were sacrificed and blood samples were analyzed for zinc concentrations that are indicative for an acute phase reaction. From the remaining animals, egg yolk samples were obtained biweekly from 0 to 6 wk following the injection and were analyzed for total IgY concentration and BSA-specific IgY titers. The response of both variables to the BSA injection did not differ between feeding groups. For serum zinc, no alterations related to the immunization against BSA were detectable. When pooling the BSA and saline injected quail within the Bt and the ISO feeding group, the Zn concentrations were slightly lower (p < 0.01) in the ISO animals than in the Bt group. The results indicated that feeding of Bt-maize does not impair the immune system of Japanese quail.Analyses for nutrient composition and mycotoxins conducted in all feeds, yielded similar nutrient contents and no differences in the concentrations of zearalenone (ZON) and deoxynivalenol (DON), concentrations of DON and ZON were consistently below the limits of acceptance of the European Commission.In conclusion, the present dissertation contributes to the general discussion of using genetically modified crops in animal nutrition, showing that no obvious adverse effects were observed in neither comparison. The results are of general importance to animal science and provide support for the comparability of Bt-maize to conventional reference maize varieties in terms of animal health.
The &#8216;Year&#8217; That Changed How We View the North This book is about a new theoretical approach that transformed the field of Arctic social studies and about a program called International Polar Year 2007&#8211;2008 (IPY) that altered the position of social research within the broader polar science. The concept for IPY was developed in 2003&#8211;2005; its vision was for researchers from many nations to work together to gain cro- disciplinary insight into planetary processes, to explore and increase our understanding of the polar regions, the Arctic and Antarctica, and of their roles in the global system. IPY 2007&#8211;2008, the fourth program of its kind, followed in the footsteps of its predecessors, the first IPY in 1882&#8211;1883, the second IPY in 1932&#8211;1933, and the third IPY (later renamed to &#8216;International Geophysical Year&#8217; or IGY) in 1957&#8211;1958. All earlier IPY/IGY have been primarily geophysical initiatives, with their focus on meteorology, atmospheric and geomagnetic observations, and with additional emphasis on glaciology and sea ice circulation. As such, they excluded socio-economic disciplines and polar indigenous people, often deliberately, except for limited ethnographic and natural history collection work conducted by some expeditions of the first IPY. That once dominant vision biased heavily towards geophysics, oceanography, and ice-sheets, left little if any place for people, that is, the social sciences and the humanities, in what has been commonly viewed as the &#8216;hard-core&#8217; polar research.
In 'Big Ecology,' David C. Coleman documents his historically fruitful ecological collaborations in the early years of studying large ecosystems in the United States. As Coleman explains, the concept of the ecosystem--a local biological community and its interactions with its environment--has given rise to many institutions and research programs, like the National Science Foundation's program for Long Term Ecological Research. Coleman's insider account of this important and fascinating trend toward big science takes us from the paradigm of collaborative interdisciplinary research, starting with the International Geophysical Year (IGY) of 1957, through the International Biological Program (IBP) of the late 1960s and early 1970s, to the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) programs of the 1980s.
To help salve the sting of orbiting Sputniks, the United States needed a dramatic demonstration of technological prowess; early in 1958, the White House ordered a top secret under-ice transit of the Arctic Ocean--Pacific to Atlantic--via the North Pole. And that spring, the Office of Naval Research initiated a unique project: to assess whether non-rigid airships (blimps) could support field parties deployed in the Arctic. This book recounts two successful missions. In August, the nuclear submarine Nautilus (SSN 571) reached 90 North and, continuing under ice, logged the first deep-ocean transit of the basin. En route to rendezvous with an IGY drifting station on T-3, an ice island, U.S. Navy airship BUNO 126719 became the sole military airship to cross the Arctic Circle. This work is based on first-hand accounts, including journal excerpts from Dr. Waldo Lyon a force behind U.S. under-ice submarine development