To help salve the sting of orbiting Sputniks, the United States needed a dramatic demonstration of technological prowess; early in 1958, the White House ordered a top secret under-ice transit of the Arctic Ocean--Pacific to Atlantic--via the North Pole. And that spring, the Office of Naval Research initiated a unique project: to assess whether non-rigid airships (blimps) could support field parties deployed in the Arctic. This book recounts two successful missions. In August, the nuclear submarine Nautilus (SSN 571) reached 90 North and, continuing under ice, logged the first deep-ocean transit of the basin. En route to rendezvous with an IGY drifting station on T-3, an ice island, U.S. Navy airship BUNO 126719 became the sole military airship to cross the Arctic Circle. This work is based on first-hand accounts, including journal excerpts from Dr. Waldo Lyon a force behind U.S. under-ice submarine development
Antibodies are the functional unit of humoral immunity. They are secreted by plasma cells, a type of B lymphocyte. When on the surface of a B cell, these molecules are immunoglobulins, following secretion they are termed as antibodies. Antibodies are found in bodily fluids and tissue spaces and are most effective in eliminating extracellular pathogens. As compared to mammalian antibodies, IgY offers various advantages for the targeted extraction of antibodies and their application in bioanalysis. Since the antibodies are extracted from the yolks of laid eggs, the method of antibody production is non-invasive. Thus, no blood must be taken from the animals for the extraction of blood serum. Because of its economic importance most research on immunity implied in the reactivity of the body were performed on domestic birds. Direct consequence of this research is the understanding of fundamental and applied concepts of immunity in birds. Comparing to the mammalian, avian immune system appears insignificant. However, it currently provides important information regarding the fundamental immunological mechanisms. It also provided a significant number of firsts, especially in vaccinology.
It has become increasingly clear that the magnetosphere becomes intermittently unstable and explosively releases a large amount of energy into the polar upper atmos phere. This particular magnetospheric phenomenon is called the magnetospheric sub storm. It is manifested as an activity or disturbance ofvarious polar upper atmospheric phenomena, such as intense auroral displays and X-ray bursts. Highly active conditions in the polar upper atmosphere result from a successive occurrence of such an element ary activity, the polar substorm, which lasts typically of order one to three hours. The concept of the magnetospheric substorm and its manifestation in the polar upper atmosphere, the polar substorm, has rapidly crystallized during the last few years. We can find a hint of such a concept in the term 'polar elementary storm' introduced by Kristian Birkeland as early as 1908. However, we are greatly indebted to Sydney Chapman, who established the basic foundation of magnetospheric physics and has led researches in this field during the last half century. Indeed, the terms 'polar magnetic substorm' and 'auroral substorm' were first suggested by Sydney Chapman. The concept of the substorm was then soon extended by Neil M. Brice of Cornell University, and Kinsey A. Anderson and his colleagues at the University ofCaliforrlia, Berkeley, who introduced the term 'magnetospheric substorm'. We owe many of these recent developments in magnetospheric physics to the great international enterprise, the International Geophysical Year (IGY) and subse quent international cooperative effort (IGC, IQSY).
Europe has a distinguished history of environmental research and hosts many of the world's leading researchers in the environmental field. Environmental concerns have been on the policy agenda since the European Comunities were created in 1957. The International Geophysical Year (IGY) was launched in the same year as a first attempt to coordinate global measurements of the Earth, the oceans, the atmosphere and the sun. It also pointed out for the first time that carbon dioxide was building up in the atmosphere. The decades since then have witnessed increasing public concern about our environment and the damage being done to it, alongside greater research efforts to increase knowledge and find solutions.
Die grössten Blasen aller Zeiten sind am Platzen. Das ist deine Chance! Gehe jeden Tag vier Schritte. So wirst du bald Millionär. Du hast viel Spass dabei, versprochen. Minden idök legnagyobb buborekjai hamarosan kipukkadnak. Ez a te eselyed! Tegyel naponta negy lepest. Igy milliomos leszel. Sok mokaban lesz reszed. Megigerem!
A IgY anti-Photobacterium damselae na terapia de Rachycentron canadum ab 35.9 EURO Um promissor modelo experimental para o estudo e imunoterapia de doenças bacterianas
C. T. Russell Originally published in the journal Space Science Reviews, Volume 136, Nos 1&#8211;4. DOI: 10. 1007/s11214-008-9344-1 © Springer Science+Business Media B. V. 2008 The Sun-Earth Connection is now an accepted fact. It has a signi cant impact on our daily lives, and its underpinnings are being pursued vigorously with missions such as the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory, commonly known as STEREO. This was not always so. It was not until the middle of the nineteenth century that Edward Sabine connected the 11-year geomagnetic cycle with Heinrich Schwabe&#8217;s deduction of a like periodicity in the sunspot record. The clincher for many was Richard Carrington&#8217;s sighting of a great whi- light are on the Sun, on September 1, 1859, followed by a great geomagnetic storm 18 hours later. But was the Sun-Earth Connection signi cant to terrestrial denizens? Perhaps in 1859 it was not, but a century later it became so. Beginning in the 1930&#8217;s, as electrical powergrids grew in size, powercompanies began to realize that they occasionally had power blackouts during periods of intense geomagnetic activity. This correlation did not appear to be suf ciently signi cant to bring to the attention of the public but during the International Geophysical Year (IGY), when geomagnetic activity was being scrutinized intensely, the occurrence of a large North American power blackout during a great magnetic storm was impossible to ignore.
Produção de antiveneno botrópico em ovos de galinha ab 35.9 EURO Tecnologia IgY na produção de imunobiológicos
In this book, Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is described as one of the pathogenic bacteria that is responsible for diarrhoea in human and farm animals. Several fimbrial adhesins of ETEC strains (K88, K99,987P and F41) were used as the primary character of ETEC diarrhoea. Regular dosages of combined K88-K99-987P and K88-K99-F41 through 4 commercial adjuvants: Freund's, White oil, Al(OH)3, and Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS) were immunised in chickens for IgY antibody production. IgY antibody extraction and purification methods from the eggs were devised. After HiTrap affinity column purification, SDS-PAGE confirmed that the extracted IgY was electrophoretic clean with a molecular weight of 188 kDa. ELISA test indicated that the induced IgYs were 5 titers higher as compared to the non-immunized chickens. The richness of lecithin and cholesterol in egg yolk was found to get the unpurified IgY stable throughout the stomach pH (3-4). Complexed IgY-egg powder (given in-vivo) as a novel food powder could transit the piglet's stomach and had a curative effect against ETEC-inducing diarrhoea.