C. T. Russell Originally published in the journal Space Science Reviews, Volume 136, Nos 1&#8211;4. DOI: 10. 1007/s11214-008-9344-1 © Springer Science+Business Media B. V. 2008 The Sun-Earth Connection is now an accepted fact. It has a signi cant impact on our daily lives, and its underpinnings are being pursued vigorously with missions such as the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory, commonly known as STEREO. This was not always so. It was not until the middle of the nineteenth century that Edward Sabine connected the 11-year geomagnetic cycle with Heinrich Schwabe&#8217;s deduction of a like periodicity in the sunspot record. The clincher for many was Richard Carrington&#8217;s sighting of a great whi- light are on the Sun, on September 1, 1859, followed by a great geomagnetic storm 18 hours later. But was the Sun-Earth Connection signi cant to terrestrial denizens? Perhaps in 1859 it was not, but a century later it became so. Beginning in the 1930&#8217;s, as electrical powergrids grew in size, powercompanies began to realize that they occasionally had power blackouts during periods of intense geomagnetic activity. This correlation did not appear to be suf ciently signi cant to bring to the attention of the public but during the International Geophysical Year (IGY), when geomagnetic activity was being scrutinized intensely, the occurrence of a large North American power blackout during a great magnetic storm was impossible to ignore.
In 'Big Ecology,' David C. Coleman documents his historically fruitful ecological collaborations in the early years of studying large ecosystems in the United States. As Coleman explains, the concept of the ecosystem--a local biological community and its interactions with its environment--has given rise to many institutions and research programs, like the National Science Foundation's program for Long Term Ecological Research. Coleman's insider account of this important and fascinating trend toward big science takes us from the paradigm of collaborative interdisciplinary research, starting with the International Geophysical Year (IGY) of 1957, through the International Biological Program (IBP) of the late 1960s and early 1970s, to the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) programs of the 1980s.
It has become increasingly clear that the magnetosphere becomes intermittently unstable and explosively releases a large amount of energy into the polar upper atmos phere. This particular magnetospheric phenomenon is called the magnetospheric sub storm. It is manifested as an activity or disturbance ofvarious polar upper atmospheric phenomena, such as intense auroral displays and X-ray bursts. Highly active conditions in the polar upper atmosphere result from a successive occurrence of such an element ary activity, the polar substorm, which lasts typically of order one to three hours. The concept of the magnetospheric substorm and its manifestation in the polar upper atmosphere, the polar substorm, has rapidly crystallized during the last few years. We can find a hint of such a concept in the term 'polar elementary storm' introduced by Kristian Birkeland as early as 1908. However, we are greatly indebted to Sydney Chapman, who established the basic foundation of magnetospheric physics and has led researches in this field during the last half century. Indeed, the terms 'polar magnetic substorm' and 'auroral substorm' were first suggested by Sydney Chapman. The concept of the substorm was then soon extended by Neil M. Brice of Cornell University, and Kinsey A. Anderson and his colleagues at the University ofCaliforrlia, Berkeley, who introduced the term 'magnetospheric substorm'. We owe many of these recent developments in magnetospheric physics to the great international enterprise, the International Geophysical Year (IGY) and subse quent international cooperative effort (IGC, IQSY).
To help salve the sting of orbiting Sputniks, the United States needed a dramatic demonstration of technological prowess; early in 1958, the White House ordered a top secret under-ice transit of the Arctic Ocean--Pacific to Atlantic--via the North Pole. And that spring, the Office of Naval Research initiated a unique project: to assess whether non-rigid airships (blimps) could support field parties deployed in the Arctic. This book recounts two successful missions. In August, the nuclear submarine Nautilus (SSN 571) reached 90 North and, continuing under ice, logged the first deep-ocean transit of the basin. En route to rendezvous with an IGY drifting station on T-3, an ice island, U.S. Navy airship BUNO 126719 became the sole military airship to cross the Arctic Circle. This work is based on first-hand accounts, including journal excerpts from Dr. Waldo Lyon a force behind U.S. under-ice submarine development
SAILING / Christopher Cross|FAME / Irene Cara|Lady / Kenny Rogers|THEME FROM NEW YORK NEW YORK / Frank Sinatra|THE ROSE / Bette Midler|WOMAN IN LOVE / Barbara Streisand|BETTE DAVIS EYES / Kim Carnes|ARTHUR'S THEME (BEST THAT YOU CAN DO) / Christopher Cross|ENDLESS LOVE / Diana Ross and Lionel Richie|JUST THE TWO OF US / Grover Washington jr.|9 TO 5 / Dolly Parton|ALWAYS ON MY MIND / Willie Nelson|EBONY AND IVORY / Paul McCartney and Stevie Wonder|EYE OF THE TIGER / Survivor|IGY (WHAT A BEAUTIFUL WORLD) / Donald Fagen|ROSANNA / Toto|EVERY BREATH YOU TAKE / The Police|ALL NIGHT LONG (ALL NIGHT) / Lionel Richie|BEAT IT / Michael Jackson|BILLIE JEAN / Michael Jackson|MANIAC / Michael Sembello|WHAT'S LOVE GOT TO DO WITH IT / Tina Turner|AGAINST ALL ODDS (TAKE A LOOK AT ME NOW) / Phil Collins|HELLO / Lionel Richie|I JUST CALLED TO SAY I LOVE YOU / Stevie Wonder|TIME AFTER TIME / Cyndi Lauper|WE ARE THE WORLD / USA for Africa|THE BOYS OF SUMMER / Don Henley|EVERYTIME YOU GO AWAY / Paul Young|I WANT TO KNOW WHAT LOVE IS / Foreigner|MONEY FOR NOTHING / Dire Straits|THAT'S WHAT FRIENDS ARE FOR / Dionne Warwick|ADDICTED TO LOVE / Robert Palmer|HIGHER LOVE / Steve Winwood|SLEDGEHAMMER / Peter Gabriel|SOMEWHERE OUT THERE / Linda Ronstadt & James Ingram|DIDN'T WE ALMOST HAVE IT ALL / Whitney Houston|I STILL HAVEN'T FOUND WHAT I'M LOOKING FOR / U2|La Bamba / Los Lobos|Luka / Suzanne Vega|DON'T WORRY BE HAPPY / Bobby McFerrin|BE STILL MY BEATING HEART / Sting|FAST CAR / Tracy Chapman|GIVING YOU THE BEST THAT I GOT / Anita Baker|PIANO IN THE DARK / Brenda Russell|THE WIND BENEATH MY WINGS / Bette Middler|DON'T KNOW MUCH / Aaron Neville and Linda Ronstadt|THE END OF THE INNOCENCE / Don Henley|THE LIVING YEARS / Mike & The Mechanics|WE DIDN'T START THE FIRE / Billy Joel|GRACELAND / Paul Simon
IgY An Alternative antibody. This text book gives a clear illustration and description of the principles and concepts of immunology in a highly accessible and comprehensive manner. This book is designed to cater the basic needs of the scientists in the field of Biomedical science, Biotechnology, Immunology, Biochemistry and Microbiology. This book also elaborates and highlights the various techniques employed for in vivo and in vitro analysis of biomolecules. Each chapter starts with introductory details of the techniques followed by laboratory methods. The book is compartmented into five following chapters, 1. Introduction 2. Venom composition and enzyme activities 3. Symptoms, signs and treatment of cobra bite 4. Extraction of egg yolk IgY 5.In vivo and In vitro assays.
Europe has a distinguished history of environmental research and hosts many of the world's leading researchers in the environmental field. Environmental concerns have been on the policy agenda since the European Comunities were created in 1957. The International Geophysical Year (IGY) was launched in the same year as a first attempt to coordinate global measurements of the Earth, the oceans, the atmosphere and the sun. It also pointed out for the first time that carbon dioxide was building up in the atmosphere. The decades since then have witnessed increasing public concern about our environment and the damage being done to it, alongside greater research efforts to increase knowledge and find solutions.
Antibodies are the functional unit of humoral immunity. They are secreted by plasma cells, a type of B lymphocyte. When on the surface of a B cell, these molecules are immunoglobulins, following secretion they are termed as antibodies. Antibodies are found in bodily fluids and tissue spaces and are most effective in eliminating extracellular pathogens. As compared to mammalian antibodies, IgY offers various advantages for the targeted extraction of antibodies and their application in bioanalysis. Since the antibodies are extracted from the yolks of laid eggs, the method of antibody production is non-invasive. Thus, no blood must be taken from the animals for the extraction of blood serum. Because of its economic importance most research on immunity implied in the reactivity of the body were performed on domestic birds. Direct consequence of this research is the understanding of fundamental and applied concepts of immunity in birds. Comparing to the mammalian, avian immune system appears insignificant. However, it currently provides important information regarding the fundamental immunological mechanisms. It also provided a significant number of firsts, especially in vaccinology.