Antibodies are the functional unit of humoral immunity. They are secreted by plasma cells, a type of B lymphocyte. When on the surface of a B cell, these molecules are immunoglobulins, following secretion they are termed as antibodies. Antibodies are found in bodily fluids and tissue spaces and are most effective in eliminating extracellular pathogens. As compared to mammalian antibodies, IgY offers various advantages for the targeted extraction of antibodies and their application in bioanalysis. Since the antibodies are extracted from the yolks of laid eggs, the method of antibody production is non-invasive. Thus, no blood must be taken from the animals for the extraction of blood serum. Because of its economic importance most research on immunity implied in the reactivity of the body were performed on domestic birds. Direct consequence of this research is the understanding of fundamental and applied concepts of immunity in birds. Comparing to the mammalian, avian immune system appears insignificant. However, it currently provides important information regarding the fundamental immunological mechanisms. It also provided a significant number of firsts, especially in vaccinology.
In Big Ecology, David C. Coleman documents his historically fruitful ecological collaborations in the early years of studying large ecosystems in the United States. As Coleman explains, the concept of the ecosystem-a local biological community and its interactions with its environment-has given rise to many institutions and research programs, like the National Science Foundation's program for Long Term Ecological Research. Coleman's insider account of this important and fascinating trend toward big science takes us from the paradigm of collaborative interdisciplinary research, starting with the International Geophysical Year (IGY) of 1957, through the International Biological Program (IBP) of the late 1960s and early 1970s, to the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) programs of the 1980s.
C. T. Russell Originally published in the journal Space Science Reviews, Volume 136, Nos 1&#8211;4. DOI: 10. 1007/s11214-008-9344-1 © Springer Science+Business Media B. V. 2008 The Sun-Earth Connection is now an accepted fact. It has a signi cant impact on our daily lives, and its underpinnings are being pursued vigorously with missions such as the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory, commonly known as STEREO. This was not always so. It was not until the middle of the nineteenth century that Edward Sabine connected the 11-year geomagnetic cycle with Heinrich Schwabe&#8217;s deduction of a like periodicity in the sunspot record. The clincher for many was Richard Carrington&#8217;s sighting of a great whi- light are on the Sun, on September 1, 1859, followed by a great geomagnetic storm 18 hours later. But was the Sun-Earth Connection signi cant to terrestrial denizens? Perhaps in 1859 it was not, but a century later it became so. Beginning in the 1930&#8217;s, as electrical powergrids grew in size, powercompanies began to realize that they occasionally had power blackouts during periods of intense geomagnetic activity. This correlation did not appear to be suf ciently signi cant to bring to the attention of the public but during the International Geophysical Year (IGY), when geomagnetic activity was being scrutinized intensely, the occurrence of a large North American power blackout during a great magnetic storm was impossible to ignore.
The research was aimed to study the potential of probiotic lactic acid bacteria as suitable alternatives to antibiotics in broilers. This was design to find a possible replacement to antibiotics in broiler production. The study was carried out at the Department of microbiology, faculty of sciences Kaduna State University, Kaduna between January to May 2018. A total of ten raw milk samples were screened for the isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria and 20 day-old broiler chicks (initial body weight 41 ± 0.5 g) were administered probiotics containing Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantenrun and Weissalla ciberia in water at 108 cells/milliliters/isolates/birds/day at day 6, 7, 8, 21, 22, and 23 of ages. Body Weight (BW), Weight Gain (WG) and Feed Intake (FI) were measured weekly just as feed conversion ratio was calculated and mortality recorded throughout the duration of the experiment. Blood glucose concentration, total protein, lipid profiles and Total immunoglobulins (IgY) were determined from blood sample at the ages of 14 and 42 days. Carcass quality and proximate analysis were evaluated from the meat of the broiler at the age of 42 days.
In 'Big Ecology,' David C. Coleman documents his historically fruitful ecological collaborations in the early years of studying large ecosystems in the United States. As Coleman explains, the concept of the ecosystem--a local biological community and its interactions with its environment--has given rise to many institutions and research programs, like the National Science Foundation's program for Long Term Ecological Research. Coleman's insider account of this important and fascinating trend toward big science takes us from the paradigm of collaborative interdisciplinary research, starting with the International Geophysical Year (IGY) of 1957, through the International Biological Program (IBP) of the late 1960s and early 1970s, to the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) programs of the 1980s.
IgY An Alternative antibody. This text book gives a clear illustration and description of the principles and concepts of immunology in a highly accessible and comprehensive manner. This book is designed to cater the basic needs of the scientists in the field of Biomedical science, Biotechnology, Immunology, Biochemistry and Microbiology. This book also elaborates and highlights the various techniques employed for in vivo and in vitro analysis of biomolecules. Each chapter starts with introductory details of the techniques followed by laboratory methods. The book is compartmented into five following chapters, 1. Introduction 2. Venom composition and enzyme activities 3. Symptoms, signs and treatment of cobra bite 4. Extraction of egg yolk IgY 5.In vivo and In vitro assays.
To help salve the sting of orbiting Sputniks, the United States needed a dramatic demonstration of technological prowess; early in 1958, the White House ordered a top secret under-ice transit of the Arctic Ocean--Pacific to Atlantic--via the North Pole. And that spring, the Office of Naval Research initiated a unique project: to assess whether non-rigid airships (blimps) could support field parties deployed in the Arctic. This book recounts two successful missions. In August, the nuclear submarine Nautilus (SSN 571) reached 90 North and, continuing under ice, logged the first deep-ocean transit of the basin. En route to rendezvous with an IGY drifting station on T-3, an ice island, U.S. Navy airship BUNO 126719 became the sole military airship to cross the Arctic Circle. This work is based on first-hand accounts, including journal excerpts from Dr. Waldo Lyon a force behind U.S. under-ice submarine development
Sailing / Christopher Cross|Fame / Irene Cara|Lady / Kenny Rogers|THEME FROM NEW YORK NEW YORK / Frank Sinatra|The rose / Bette Midler|Woman in love / Barbara Streisand|Bette Davis eyes / Kim Carnes|Arthur's theme (best that you can do) / Christopher Cross|Endless love / Diana Ross and Lionel Richie|JUST THE TWO OF US / Grover Washington jr.|9 TO 5 / Dolly Parton|Always on my mind / Willie Nelson|EBONY AND IVORY / Paul McCartney and Stevie Wonder|Eye of the tiger / Survivor|IGY (WHAT A BEAUTIFUL WORLD) / Donald Fagen|ROSANNA / Toto|Every breath you take / The Police|ALL NIGHT LONG (ALL NIGHT) / Lionel Richie|Beat it / Michael Jackson|Billie Jean / Michael Jackson|Maniac / Michael Sembello|What's love got to do with it / Tina Turner|Against all odds (take a look at me now) / Phil Collins|Hello / Lionel Richie|I just called to say i love you / Stevie Wonder|Time after time / Cyndi Lauper|We are the world / USA for Africa|The boys of summer / Don Henley|EVERYTIME YOU GO AWAY / Paul Young|I want to know what love is / Foreigner|Money for nothing / Dire Straits|THAT'S WHAT FRIENDS ARE FOR / Dionne Warwick|ADDICTED TO LOVE / Robert Palmer|HIGHER LOVE / Steve Winwood|SLEDGEHAMMER / Peter Gabriel|Somewhere out there / Linda Ronstadt & James Ingram|Didn't we almost have it all / Whitney Houston|I still haven't found what I'm looking for / U2|La Bamba / Los Lobos|Luka / Suzanne Vega|Don't worry be happy / Bobby McFerrin|BE STILL MY BEATING HEART / Sting|FAST CAR / Tracy Chapman|GIVING YOU THE BEST THAT I GOT / Anita Baker|PIANO IN THE DARK / Brenda Russell|THE WIND BENEATH MY WINGS / Bette Middler|DON'T KNOW MUCH / Aaron Neville and Linda Ronstadt|THE END OF THE INNOCENCE / Don Henley|The living years / Mike & The Mechanics|We didn't start the fire / Billy Joel|Graceland / Paul Simon
In diesem Buch wird enterotoxigene Escherichia coli (ETEC) als eines der pathogenen Bakterien beschrieben, das für Durchfallerkrankungen bei Menschen und Nutztieren verantwortlich ist. Mehrere Fimbrienadhäsine von ETEC-Stämmen (K88, K99,987P und F41) wurden als primärer Charakter von ETEC-Durchfall verwendet. Regelmäßige Dosierung von kombinierten K88-K99-987P und K88-K99-F41 durch 4 kommerzielle Adjuvantien: Freund's, Weißöl, Al(OH)3 und Phosphatpuffer-Salzlösung (PBS) wurden bei Hühnern zur Produktion von IgY-Antikörpern immunisiert. Es wurden Methoden zur Extraktion und Reinigung von IgY-Antikörpern aus den Eiern entwickelt. Nach der Reinigung der HiTrap-Affinitätssäule bestätigte SDS-PAGE, dass das extrahierte IgY elektrophoretisch sauber mit einem Molekulargewicht von 188 kDa war. Der ELISA-Test zeigte an, dass die induzierten IgYs 5 Titer höher waren als bei den nicht immunisierten Hühnern. Der Reichtum an Lecithin und Cholesterin im Eigelb führte dazu, dass das ungereinigte IgY im gesamten pH-Wert des Magens stabil war (3-4).
In this book, Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is described as one of the pathogenic bacteria that is responsible for diarrhoea in human and farm animals. Several fimbrial adhesins of ETEC strains (K88, K99,987P and F41) were used as the primary character of ETEC diarrhoea. Regular dosages of combined K88-K99-987P and K88-K99-F41 through 4 commercial adjuvants: Freund's, White oil, Al(OH)3, and Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS) were immunised in chickens for IgY antibody production. IgY antibody extraction and purification methods from the eggs were devised. After HiTrap affinity column purification, SDS-PAGE confirmed that the extracted IgY was electrophoretic clean with a molecular weight of 188 kDa. ELISA test indicated that the induced IgYs were 5 titers higher as compared to the non-immunized chickens. The richness of lecithin and cholesterol in egg yolk was found to get the unpurified IgY stable throughout the stomach pH (3-4). Complexed IgY-egg powder (given in-vivo) as a novel food powder could transit the piglet's stomach and had a curative effect against ETEC-inducing diarrhoea.
Presents the story of man's first probe into space. The International Geophysical Year is the first concerted international effort to advance our knowledge not only of space but of earth and sun. Sydney Chapman, leader of the team of scientists that directed the program, re-creates for the general reader the discoveries that will provide the basis for our exploration of space.
Aja|ANY WORLD (THAT I'M WELCOME TO)|BABYLON SISTERS|Bad Sneakers|BIG NOISE NEW YORK|BLACK COW|Black Friday / Steely Dan|Bodhisattva / Steely Dan|BROOK OF LIARS|Deacon Blues / Steely Dan|Do it again|DOCTOR WU|EVERYONE'S GONE TO THE MOVIES|FM / Steely Dan|Gaucho / Steely Dan|Green Earrings|GREEN FLOWER STREET|HERE AT THE WESTERN WORLD|Hey Nineteen / Steely Dan|IGY (WHAT A BEAUTIFUL WORLD)|Josie|Kid Charlemagne / Steely Dan|My Old School / Steely Dan|Peg|Reelin' in the years|Rikki don't lose that number / Steely Dan|ROSE DARLING|THIRD WORLD MAN|THROW BACK THE LITTLE ONES|Time Out Of Mind|WHAT A SHAME ABOUT ME